Rang-rig Togden was the sang-yab and disciple of Jomo Pema ’ö-Zér. Jomo Pema ’ö-Zér was an incarnation of Tashi Chhi’drèn, the consort of Padmasambhava who manifests as the tiger in the image of Dorje Tröllö. Jomo Pema ’ö-Zér and Rang-rig Togden were the parents of Khyungchen Aro Lingma, and the grandparents of Aro Yeshé, the previous incarnation of Ngak’chang Rinpoche. It was from Rang-rig Togden that the Aro tradition inherited the style of using the gÇod Drum to accompany awareness-spell and many other practices. Rang-rig Togden was a gÇod-pa when he met Jomo Pema ’ö-Zér, and from her he received the Dzogchen long-dé teachings of Jomo Chhi’mèd Pema. Rang-rig Togden is one of a small number of great male practitioners within the Mother Essence Lineage of the Aro tradition.